Swelling of Joints and Bones
Generally, the swelling that develops due to fire in the joints and surrounding tissues, i.e. inflammation, is mainly seen as a result of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis and trauma.
However, bone and joint osteoid osteoma, such as enkondrome due to tumoral formation may be painful or painless swelling.
Osteoarthritis is inflammation of the joints.
It is characterized by deterioration, wear, and wear in articular cartilage. As a result, joint damage begins and swelling and pain occurs in the joint.
The disease is most common in the feet, knees, waist, hips and fingers. Osteoarthritis is 3 times more common in women and usually begins after the age of 60. It’s due to an overload in the joints.
How is the treatment done?
The goal of treatment in osteoarthritis is to relieve pain, stiffness and swelling in the joint and to ensure that the joint continues to function normally. Paracetamol is the best medicine for osteoarthritis pain. Applying anti-inflammatory creams around the joint may be beneficial. In addition, the application of an ice bag on the joint once or twice a day reduces the pain. If the treatment is not enough, local anesthetic and cortisone and hyaluronic acid are injected into the knee joint.
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumor of bone and accounts for 10% of benign bone tumors. It is more common in childhood age group. Boys are seen 2-3 times more than girls. It usually holds long bones (tibia, thigh bone, arm bones). It is also rare to see in other bones.
What are the symptoms of Osteoid osteoma?
Osteoid osteoma usually manifests itself with pain. The typical characteristic of pain is that it passes with aspirin. Pain is usually more common at night. The pain in the tumor area may also be accompanied by swelling.
How is Osteoid osteoma diagnosed?
The diagnosis of Osteoid osteoma is usually made by clinical examination and X-ray film. The diagnosis can be clarified with computed tomography examination and rarely an MRI examination may be required.
What happens if Osteoid osteoma is not treated?
In patients suffering from pain, the quality of life may deteriorate and pathological bone fracture may occur in the bone in the later period. This occurs when force is applied to the bone as a result of weakened bone due to tumor tissue.
Treatment of Osteoid osteoma
Osteoid osteoma can be treated in 2 ways;
- Surgical treatment
- Non-surgical ablation therapy (RF Ablation))
An orthopedist and radiologist who knows the patient closely and who is interested in the diagnosis and treatment should decide together which treatment method to apply. Pediatric pediatricians may be required to be included in this team.
Today, the use of radiofrequency ablation technique has become increasingly common. This method shows less normal bone tissue damage and the healing process is faster.
What is radiofrequency ablation?
Radiofrequency ablation is a method used in medicine for the last 15 years. With this method, harmful body tissues (such as tumors, bone protrusions, some nerve tissues, etc.) are destroyed – burned by high heat, and this process is called ablation. In ablated tissues, cells die and cannot function. As a result, these harmful tissues are killed, function is lost and results are obtained equivalent to surgical treatment.
How is radiofrequency ablation used in osteoid osteoma?
RF Ablation is often used in osteoid osteoma as it only destroys tumoral tissue, causing less damage to Normal bone tissue. The procedure is performed while the patient is under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia.
Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common of malignant bone tumors in children and adolescents.
In osteosarcoma, the patient is known to have gene abnormalities. These patients were most commonly 13 and 17. chromosomes are abnormal.
What are the symptoms of osteosarcoma?
Osteosarcoma is most common in the lower end of the femur and the upper end of the tibia, and usually occurs in long bones. The main finding in most patients is pain.
In half of cases, there is a mass addressed. In the area of involvement, movement restriction and weakness in the extremities (limbs) can be seen.
15% of tumours metastases (spreads) occur and often spread to the lungs, other bones and brain.
What are the radiographic and laboratory findings?
In 50% of patients, serum alkaline phosphate in the blood and in 25%, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is high.
Direct radiography can give a diagnosis. (Radiographic image; lytic and sclerotic lesion with construction and destruction of bone is present)
Treatment of osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma treatment is performed according to the stage of the tumor.
Today, treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and wide resection (removal of tumor) and chemotherapy after resection in the form of disease.
The response to radiotherapy (radiation therapy) is low.