Air gaps in the face bones are called “sinuses. The inflammation of the sinuses is called “sinusitis. Sinusitis is an infection or inflammation of the sinuses. It is caused by the secretion of excess mucus as a result of a cold or an allergic attack. The fullness of the face, headache and runny nose are seen. It can cause pain on the face, forehead, between eyes or behind, cheeks or upper teeth.
How is Sinusitis Diagnosed?
For the diagnosis of sinusitis, the patient undergoes a physical examination first. Laboratory examinations (mucus culture), nasal endoscopy, x-rays, allergy tests, computerized tomography of sinuses are among the tests performed for the diagnosis of sinusitis.
Nasal endoscopy is an important diagnostic tool for sinusitis.
How Does a Specialist Doctor Suggest a Treatment Process?
To reduce congestion, the physician may prescribe nasal sprays, nasal drops or oral decongestants. Antibiotics (antibiotics are not effective against viral infections) are prescribed for any bacterial infection found in the sinuses. Antihistamines can be recommended for the treatment of allergies.
Surgery can be chosen in chronic sinusitis. Balloon synoplasty according to the patient’s condition can be performed. After sinus surgery, dressings should be removed without interruption and sinusitis should be avoided.
Sinusitis treatment may be recommended if treatment with sinusitis is not effective with medications that your doctor deems appropriate and if there is a chronic condition.
What is the Recovery Time After Surgery for Sinusitis Treatment?
Simple endoscopic surgical procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia.
The patient returns to normal activities within 4 days. Complete recovery of sinusitis takes about 4 weeks.
What is the Success Rate of Sinus Surgery?
The operation for the treatment of sinusitis allows the sinuses to be opened naturally. Ear, nose and throat specialists and head and neck surgeons find endoscopic surgery quite successful in returning sinuses to normal function. This procedure opens the occlusion to ensure normal mucus flow.
Allergic Flu (Allergic Rhinitis)
Allergic substances (allergens) that occur after contact with the nasal mucosa and discharge, itching in the nose and eyes, sneezing, sore throat itching complaints that are called “allergic flu” is called. The cause is an abnormal reaction to airborne particles entering the nose through respiration. The terms hay fever, summer flu, and allergic rhinitis (nasal inflammation) are used synonymously with allergic flu.
How is Allergic Rhinitis Diagnosed?
A detailed anamnesis is taken by the physician (age of the patient, whether the drug is used, if there is a history of allergy in the family, the season in which symptoms occur, in which conditions complaints increase). Ear nose and throat examination are performed.
Allergy tests are performed (skin tests or blood allergens). Skin tests are more common.
How is Allergic Rhinitis Treated?
Allergic rhinitis treatment is aimed at eliminating symptoms and relieving the patient. It is very important to stop contact with allergy-causing factors during treatment. Among the methods applied in treatment;
- Vaccine treatment (hyposensitization)
- Rhinolight (phototherapy)
- Surgical treatment
Nasal Bone Curvature (Septum Deviation)
There is a structure consisting of cartilage at the front and bone at the back. The ideal nasal bone is in the middle of the face and the right and left cavity of the nose is equal in size and size. The curvature of the nasal bone is caused by the deterioration of this structural appearance.
During birth, hereditary or subsequent right-left shifts or curvature may occur due to fracture. A smooth-looking nose may also have an invisible bone deviation. Curvature may be mild or may become clear enough to obstruct in some patients.
What are the Symptoms of Septum Deviation?
- Congestion in nose tunnels
- Current, clogged, often single-channel congestion
- Frequent nosebleeds
- Common sinusitis
- Pain in the face
- Postnasal drip
- Audible respiration in infants and young children
How is Septum Deviation Diagnosed?
A deviated person breathes mouth at night and experiences dry mouth. Same time; There are also daytime symptoms such as general fatigue and headaches. Until an Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases examination is performed, it may take years for the person to notice this condition.
During the examination, the nose tunnels are evaluated by looking at the person’s nose and using endoscopes that are thin rod-shaped.
Septum Deviation (Nasal Bone Curvature) What should be Done Before Surgery?
As a result of examinations and evaluations, the person who is decided to have an operation is informed about the necessity, benefits and possible risks of the operation. There will be forms for this operation to be requested from the person to be signed. The patient, who has an adequate idea and has made his decision according to the subject, is subjected to some tests that are required before the operation. Following the conclusion that these assays do not constitute an obstacle for the operation to be performed, the patient is taken into operation.
What is the Healing Process in Septum Deviation?
During recovery after nasal surgery; crusting, obstructions due to dark viscous liquids. As the weeks go by, these fluids may gradually decrease, while crusting may continue. After 5-6 weeks, the comfort of breathing through the nose is experienced. It will take longer to adapt to the new structure of the nose. In this process, some people may continue to breathe orally in their sleep. In some people, they may feel more obstructed than previously open noses.
Does The Shape of The Nose Change After Septum Deviation (Nasal Bone Curvature)?
The shape of the nose is not expected to change after a completed nose operation.
Surgical correction of the curvature of the cartilage and bone structure (nasal septum) separating the nasal cavity is called Septoplasty (SMR). Chronic sinusitis can be performed in conjunction with surgery for sleep apnea.
When is Septoplasty Performed?
Nasal curvature is accompanied by septoplasty if:
- Difficulty breathing through the nose
- Chronic Nasal Congestion
- Recurrent sinusitis infections
- Uncontrolled nosebleeds
- Nasal perforation (hole)
- Chronic headache
- Sleep apnea
- Continuous nasal discharge
- Intranasal polyps
How Old Can Septoplasty Be Performed?
Rhinoplasty and so on. As in nasal surgery, septoplasty surgery should wait for the age of 17-18 when nasal development is completed. As the nose will continue to develop after the operations performed before the development is completed, it may be re-bent. If there is a special condition that requires urgent surgery, the operation can be performed before.
How is Septoplasty Performed?
Although septoplasty can be performed with local anaesthesia in some cases such as heart failure and hypertension, septoplasty is performed under general anaesthesia. The operation time is up to 1 hour. Generally, an invisible incision is made in the nostril and the septum under the mucosa is reached, reshaping the bone and cartilage, thus correcting the curvature. If necessary, rasping or complete removal can be performed. When the correction process is finished, the buffer is applied to the nasal cavity (silicone or self-melting).
One may need to stay overnight after septoplasty. The mild bloody discharge may come from the edge of the tampon and the nasal passage until the pads are removed. This is normal and disappears when the buffers are removed. Self-insoluble buffers are removed for 1-3 days. No swelling and bruising on the face. Once the buffers have been removed, return to work can be done. On average, full recovery takes 3-6 weeks. If a condition such as fever, sputum cough, severe dizziness or excessive fatigue occurs after the operation, consult a doctor immediately.
As with any surgery, there is a risk of complications in this operation. Some situations that may occur are; return of symptoms, rupture of the septum, upper anterior teeth, numbness of the upper lip and nose.
Patients Should pay Attention to the Following After Septoplasty;
- Oral breathing should be given during the time the buffers are present.
- Once the buffers have been removed, the nose can be gently cleaned (with materials such as nasal spray, nasal wash lavage).
- Care should be taken to protect the nose from traumas.
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- Take plenty of fluids.
- To keep the head high for several weeks after the operation, a few pillows should be placed under the head.
- It can be done with warm water 2 days after surgery, but the bath time should be short.
- Heavy septoplasty should not be performed for at least 1-2 weeks after septoplasty.
- Medications given should be used regularly.
- Tobacco and alcoholic products should not be used during the period prescribed by the doctor
It is caused by inflammation of the mucous membranes in the sinus and nasal passages. The polyps may extend from the nostrils to the throat area. Such formations may cause blockage of the nasal passage.
What are the Symptoms of Nasal Polyps?
Most people with nasal polyps complain of severe nasal congestion that does not go away with typical allergy medications.
Other common symptoms include:
- Transparent or coloured runny nose,
- Decreased or completely disappeared sense of smell and taste,
- Sinus pressure
Facial pain is more common in people with chronic sinusitis than those with nasal polyps. It may be possible to see the polyp in the nostrils in patients with severe nasal polyps. These structures have a jelly-like appearance.
Prolonged nasal polyps may lead to the expansion of the nasal bridge, which may eventually appear to be separated from each other.
How is Nasal Polyp Diagnosed?
In some cases, your doctor may diagnose nasal polyps by examining the nasal passages. During this examination, nasal endoscopy can be performed with a device with a small camera at the end to better observe the nasal passage.
More commonly, however, sinus CT (“cat scan”) is required to make a diagnosis. In some cases, it may be necessary to look at the state of the sinuses with computed tomography. Since nasal polyps are common in diseases associated with the condition, further investigations may be necessary.
How is Nasal Polyps Treated?
Nasal polyps can be treated with medical and surgical methods. In severe cases, sinus surgery is necessary to remove nasal polyps and associated sinus infection. However, excessive use of surgery should be avoided as nasal polyps tend to re-grow in at least one-third of patients.
Treatment of nasal polyps includes the following methods:
Nasal steroid sprays and drops
Topical nasal steroid sprays are used to reduce the size of the nasal polyp and to prevent the post-growth of polyps again. Some doctors prefer drops instead of spray because they have better access to the nasal passage and the polyp.
Oral corticosteroids rapidly reduce the size of the nasal polyp and are useful for people with serious symptoms.
In cases where fungal sinusitis is the cause of nasal polyps, low-dose oral corticosteroids may have to be used by patients and for months to prevent the regrowth of polyps after surgery.
Antileukotriene drugs are useful in the treatment of nasal polyps, especially those with aspirin allergy.
Saline nasal lavage may be particularly useful in people with nasal polyps and chronic sinus infections. This method is particularly useful for people who have undergone sinusitis surgery since the sinuses will be washed along with the nasal passage.
Nasal and Sinus Tumors
Good and malignant tumours can be seen in the sinuses around the nose and nose. Among the benign ones, the most common tumours are called “papilloma”. Papillomas can sometimes have malignant tumour transformation. Rarer benign tumours include osteomas, fibromas, and neurinomas.
Sinus tumours initially grow in the cavities within the bone, and often do not cause complaints, symptoms usually occur when they spread into the nose, eyes and brain. Nasal and sinus cancers usually grow at the site of onset and are not likely to spread to lymph nodes and other organs.
The most common symptoms are:
- Nasal symptoms: nasal congestion or nosebleed
- Symptoms of the oral cavity: swinging or shedding of teeth, pain in the upper jaw, swelling of the palate, difficulty opening the mouth
- Eye symptoms: eyelid closure, blurred vision, double vision, visual impairment
- Symptoms in the face: sensory disturbances, facial asymmetry, increasing pain,
The diagnosis of nasal and sinus tumours is often delayed because the symptoms are similar to those of sinusitis. When diagnosed, there is often spread to the eye or head. Computed tomography and imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging are used in the diagnosis and determination of the extent of the tumour. After these examinations, a biopsy procedure and pathology examination should usually confirm the tumour diagnosis and determine the type. A biopsy may need to be performed in operating room conditions.
The ideal treatment of benign tumours and mucoceles of the nose and sinuses is their surgical removal. The type of surgery depends on the location and type of tumour. In malignant tumours, a wide range of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (radioactive ray therapy) is required. Sometimes chemotherapy (drug cancer treatment) may be required along with radiotherapy.
In conventional surgical treatment, incisions were made to remove the tumour by passing along the nose, face skin, mouth, forehead or scalp. Nowadays, it is possible to perform endoscopic surgery in the majority of benign tumours of the nose and sinuses and early detection of malignant tumours.
The air we receive from the nose passes from the nasal region to the throat and pharyngeal area from behind the soft palate and from there through the larynx to the trachea and lungs. When the air behind the mouth and nose is obstructed, the soft tissues of the tongue, small tongue, palate and throat vibrate and vibrate to each other and breathe by making loud noises during sleep.
How is Snoring Treated?
Snoring patients should be carefully examined for the presence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and the patient should be tested for sleep if necessary. In the sleep test, the patient sleeps one night in the sleep laboratory. Here, the parameters such as snoring, number and duration of apnea, blood oxygen levels, sleep depth are determined by devices called polysomnography and the patient is diagnosed with a definite diagnosis.
How to Treat Snoring and Treatment Methods According to Source
The doctor can determine the causes of snoring by performing the necessary tests in line with the patient’s history. There may be various problems arising from the nose and larynx. The problem of snoring can be prevented by improving imperfect areas such as nose curvature, the tongue being larger than normal, nasal flesh, large tonsils, small tongue and soft palate sagging.
Some of the snoring treatments provided by doctors include;
- Radiofrequency application to the soft palate,
- Nasal openers
- Compressed air through the nose to the patient with CPAP device
- Nasal surgery
- Various nose surgeries
Some measures that patients can take on their own;
- Losing weight if you have excessive weight problems,
- Healthy eating,
- Changing the sleep position
- Sleeping regularly
- Healthy eating
- Not to smoke and drink alcohol before sleep
Nose Flesh (Konka)
Most patients with ENT disorder consult a doctor because of nasal congestion and swelling of the nasal flesh (turbinate). Nasal flesh growth, which can lead to major respiratory problems, can occur occasionally when there is no cause. Also, it may occur with allergic conditions. When the flesh of the nose meets the allergic agent, it can grow a few millimetres since the incoming blood flow will increase.
Medicated Method and Radiofrequency Method in Nasal Meat
Sprays containing several special substances may be used to reduce nasal flesh. However, these sprays should not be used for more than 5-6 days. It should be noted that sprays do not have a therapeutic feature in reducing nasal flesh. Radiofrequency is a contraction method used in the treatment of nasal flesh. Local anaesthesia or general anaesthesia radiofrequency energy is given to the nasal flesh and the volume of the nasal flesh is reduced. Nasal meats treated with this method can grow again.
Nightmares Nose Flesh
Swelling of the nasal flesh (turbinate), where the vessels which are capable of expansion and contraction, are very rich, lead to nasal congestion.
Depending on the severity of the obstruction, patients sleep with their mouths open, snore, and more importantly, they are breathless at short intervals. This is a nightmare for patients at night. Drying of the throat, odour in the mouth, rusting of the tongue, decrease in the sense of taste, crisp and coughing attacks occur all night due to inhalation by mouth.
Medical treatment of nasal flesh growth should be directed to the cause.
- We should not consume cigarettes and alcohol, nor use vascular constrictor nasal drops for more than three days.
- Allergy medicines called antihistamines increase the tendency to sleep. When these drugs are taken, we should avoid actions that require attention, such as driving.
- Decongestant medications increase heart rate and pressure.
- Unfortunately, ephedrine nasal sprays used unconsciously by patients cause irreversible damage to the flesh of the nose.
Nasal Valve Surgery
The areas where the airflow into the nose is the most are the internal and external (external) nasal valves (nose valve) that form the soft tissue part of the nose.
Narrowing or collapse of the valve areas causes nasal breathing difficulty (nasal valve failure) and this is one of the main causes of nasal congestion. Nasal valve surgery is based on the relief of airflow in the region by eliminating the narrowing of the nasal valve.
Causes of Nasal Valve Failure
Among the reasons for the emergence of the nasal valve insufficiency; wrong rhinoplasty or septoplasty, traumas affecting the nose, septum curvatures, congenital weakness in the nasal structures, cleft lip, facial paralysis.
Symptoms of Nasal Valve Failure
Nasal valve failure generally manifests itself as follows;
- Sleeping with mouth open
- Dry mouth throat
- Fatigue, fatigue
- Aesthetic disorder in the appearance of the nose (asymmetry at the entrance to the nose, the collapse of the middle lateral soft tissues of the nose)
Diagnosis of Nasal Valve Failure
In the diagnosis of nasal valve failure, other methods other than physical examination can be used for definitive diagnosis. These include the Cottle Maneuver Test, Acoustic Rhinometry and Rhinomanometry tests, where both index fingers are placed at the junction of the nose and the cheek and pulled to the ears slightly to check for relief of the patient’s breath.
Nasal Valve Surgery
Nasal valve failure, which is a very successful and permanent method in nasal valve failure, can be used not only to increase the valve angle but also to correct problems in other nasal structures.
Local anaesthesia, sedation or general anaesthesia may be used for nasal valve surgery depending on the condition. The cartilage to be used to expand the valve region is usually taken from the septum or ear. It is then shaped and placed in the back region of the nose and fixed to the nose with sutures.